Farnia, P.a, Farnia, P.b, Mohammadi, M.a, Mohammadi, M.c, Najafzadeh, E.a, Najafzadeh, E.b, Alimohamadi, M.d, Makkiabadi, B.a, Makkiabadi, B.b, Ahmadian, A.a, Ahmadian, A.b
The use of intra-operative imaging system as an intervention solution to provide more accurate localization of complicated structures has become a necessity during the neurosurgery. However, due to the limitations of conventional imaging systems, high-quality real-time intra-operative imaging remains as a challenging problem. Meanwhile, photoacoustic imaging has appeared so promising to provide images of crucial structures such as blood vessels and microvasculature of tumors. To achieve high-quality photoacoustic images of vessels regarding the artifacts caused by the incomplete data, we proposed an approach based on the combination of time-reversal (TR) and deep learning methods. The proposed method applies a TR method in the first layer of the network which is followed by the convolutional neural network with weights adjusted to a set of simulated training data for the other layers to estimate artifact-free photoacoustic images. It was evaluated using a generated synthetic database of vessels. The mean of signal to noise ratio (SNR), peak SNR, structural similarity index, and edge preservation index for the test data were reached 14.6 dB, 35.3 dB, 0.97 and 0.90, respectively. As our results proved, by using the lower number of detectors and consequently the lower data acquisition time, our approach outperforms the TR algorithm in all criteria in a computational time compatible with clinical use.