Khademi, S., Sarkar, S., Kharrazi, S., Amini, S, M., Shakeri-Zadeh, A., Ay, M.R., Ghadiri, H.
Increasing attention has been focused on the use of nanostructures as contrast enhancement agents in medical imaging, especially in computed tomography (CT). To date, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been demonstrated to have great potential as contrast agents for CT imaging. This study was designed to evaluate any effect on X-ray attenuation that might result from employing GNPs with a variety of shapes, sizes, surface chemistries, and concentrations. Gold nanorods (GNRs) and spherical GNPs were synthesized for this application. X-ray attenuation was quantified by Hounsfield unit (HU) in CT. Our findings indicated that smaller spherical GNPs (13 nm) had higher X-ray attenuation than larger ones (60 nm) and GNRs with larger aspect ratio exhibited great effect on X-ray attenuation. Moreover, poly ethylene glycol (PEG) coating on GNRs declined X-ray attenuation as a result of limiting the aggregation of GNRs. We observed X-ray attenuation increased when mass concentration of GNPs was elevated. Overall, smaller spherical GNPs can be suggested as a better alternative to Omnipaque, a good contrast agent for CT imaging. This data can be also considered for the application of gold nanostructures in radiation dose enhancement where nanoparticles with high X-ray attenuation are applied.