Najafzadeh, Ghadiri, Alimohamadi, Mehrmohammadi, Ahmadian, A.
Purpose: A real-time intra-operative imaging modality is required to update the navigation systems during neurosurgery, since precise localization and safe maximal resection of gliomas are of utmost clinical importance. Different intra-operative imaging modalities have been proposed to delineate the resection borders, each with advantages and disadvantages. This preliminary study was designed to simulate the photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to illustrate the brain tumor margin vessels for safe maximal resection of glioma. Methods: In this study, light emitting diode (LED)-based PAI was selected because of its lower cost, compact size and ease of use. We developed a simulation framework based on multi-wavelength LED-based PAI to further facilitate PAI during neurosurgery. This framework considers a multilayer model of the tumoral and normal brain tissue. The simulation of the optical fluence and absorption map in tissue at different depths was computed by Monte Carlo. Then, the propagation of initial photoacoustic pressure was simulated by using k-wave toolbox. Results: To evaluate the LED-based PAI, we used three evaluation criteria: signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast ratio (CR) and full width of half maximum (FWHM). Results showed that by using proper wavelengths, the vessels were recovered with the same axial and lateral FWHM. Furthermore, by increasing the wavelength from 532 to 1064 nm, SNR and CR were increased in the deep region. The results showed that vessels with larger diameters at same wavelength have a higher CR with average improvement 28%. Conclusion: Multi-wavelength LED-based PAI provides detailed images of the blood vessels which are crucial for detection of the residual glioma: The longer wavelengths like 1064 nm can be used for the deeper tumor margins, and the shorter wavelengths like 532 nm for tumor margins closer to the surface. LED-based PAI may be considered as a promising intra-operative imaging modality to delineate tumor margins. © 2020, CARS.