Lahooti, A., Sarkar, S., Laurent, S., Shanehsazzadeh, S.
Nowadays molecular imaging plays a vital role in achieving a successful targeted and personalized treatment. Hence, the approach of combining two or more medical imaging modalities was developed. The objective of this review is to systematically compare recent dual contrast agents in Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and in some cases Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/MRI in terms of some their characteristics, such as tumor uptake, and reticuloendothelial system uptake (especially liver) and their relaxivity rates for early detection of primary cancer tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic and integrated overview of this field. Two reviewers individually directed the systematic review search using PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar. Two other reviewers directed quality assessment, using the criteria checklist from the CAMARADES (Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies) tool, and differences were resolved by consensus. After reviewing all 49 studies, we concluded that a size range of 20-200 nm can be used for molecular imaging, although it is better to try to achieve as small a size as it is possible. Also, small nanoparticles with a hydrophilic coating and positive charge are suitable as a T2 contrast agent. According to our selected data, the most successful dual probes in terms of high targeting were with an average size of 40 nm, PEGylated using peptides as a biomarker and radiolabeled with copper 64 and gallium 68. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.