Computer assisted and robotic Medical interventions are becoming common clinical practices in recent years as a result of the rising trend towards more precise medical procedures especially in surgery and rehabilitation. They are proved to provide better clinical results and lower the overall costs through shorter hospital stays, shorter recovery times, reduced need for repeated surgeries and availability of home based therapy. The domain of applications has now been extended to the full spectrum of the medical treatment, from diagnosis to preoperative planning, surgery execution, and postoperative rehabilitation. The products are thus rather diverse, ranging from modeling and visualization software tools to surgical simulator units, navigation systems, surgical robots, and robotic rehabilitation apparatuses. The discipline inherently involves the integration of many different computer-related technologies. Modern medical imaging systems, such as CT, MR, PET, together with advanced techniques of image analyzing and modeling, 3D anatomy visualization, real-time tracking and sensing, haptics and robotics are considered to be the key underlying technologies. Considering the wide range of technologies, products and applications, a number of different names have been attributed to the discipline, e.g., image-guided surgery, computer-assisted surgery, medical robotics, medical virtual reality, computer-integrated surgery.