Publication / RCMCI
Published Date: 2019/11/01
Published By: Dr Mohammad Reza Ay
Published At: Journal of Instrumentation, 2019, Vol 14
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Mahsa Amirrashedi, Saeed Sarkar, Pardis Ghafarian, Reza Hashemi Shahraki, Parham Geramifar, Habib Zaidi, Mohammad Reza Ay



Xtrim-PET is a newly designed Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs)-based prototype PET scanner dedicated for small laboratory animal imaging. We present the performance evaluation of the Xtrim-PET scanner following NEMA NU-4 2008 standards to help optimizing scanning protocols which can be achieved through standard and reliable system performance characterization.


The performance assessment was conducted according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU-4 2008 standards in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, counting rate performance, scatter fraction and image quality. The in vivo imaging capability of the scanner is also showcased through scanning a normal mouse injected with 18 F-FDG. Furthermore, the performance characteristics of the developed scanner are compared with commercially available systems and current prototypes.


The volumetric spatial resolution at 5 mm radial offset from the central axis of the scanner is 6.81 µl, whereas a peak absolute sensitivity of 2.99% was achieved using a 250-650 keV energy window and a 10 ns timing window. The peak noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) using a mouse-like phantom is 113.18 kcps at 0.34 KBq/cc with 12.5% scatter fraction, whereas the NECR peaked at 82.76 kcps for an activity concentration level of 0.048 KBq/cc with a scatter fraction of 25.8% for rat-like phantom. An excellent uniformity (3.8%) was obtained using NEMA image quality phantom. Recovery coefficients of 90%, 86%, 68%, 40% and 12% were calculated for rod diameters of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 mm, respectively. Spill-over ratios for air-filled and water-filled chambers were 35% and 25% without applying any correction for attenuation and Compton scattering effects.